Bilberries are a rich dietary source of various phytonutrients, including anthocyanins which contribute greatly to their antioxidant capacity and have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include protection against cardiovascular disorders, age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and several degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protecting genomic DNA integrity.
Ashwagandha may be effective in enhancing both immediate and general memory in people with MCI as well as improving executive function, attention, and information processing speed. For focus, concentration, and memory, Ashwagandha has been shown in many studies to enhance all aspects of cognitive function.
Citicoline is able to potentiate neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipid synthesis, or rather serves as a choline source in the metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Several studies have shown that it can have beneficial effects both in degenerative and in vascular cognitive decline.
Vitamin B6 is involved in the regulation of mental function and mood. Vitamin B6 is also an essential homocysteine re-methylation cofactor, and deficiency is associated with increase in blood homocysteine levels. Homocysteine is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and may also have directly toxic effects on neurons of the central nervous system.
Folic acid supplementation may improve cognitive function by decreasing homocysteine (Hcy), vascular care, attenuating inflammatory status, modification of cerebral folic acid deficiency, and antioxidant responses. Importantly, when combined with B12, it is essential in the creation of new oxygen carrying blood cells.
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin. It is a cofactor in DNA synthesis and is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, including the central nervous system. Those with a deficiency of B12 can present with peripheral neuropathy, pernicious anemia, or a cognitive disorder. Previous studies have revealed that a deficiency of B12 is associated with cognitive decline or Alzheimer disease.